Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from

Cholesterol from non-hepatic peripheral tissues is transferred to HDL by the ABCA1 ( ATP-binding cassette transporter ). [2] Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1), the major protein component of HDL, acts as an acceptor, and the phospholipid component of HDL acts as a sink for the mobilised cholesterol. The cholesterol is converted to cholesteryl esters by the enzyme LCAT ( lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase ). The cholesteryl esters can be transferred, with the help of CETP ( cholesterylester transfer protein ) in exchange for triglycerides, to other lipoproteins (such as LDL and VLDL), and these lipoproteins can be taken up by secreting unesterified cholesterol into the bile or by converting cholesterol to bile acids .

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

Recent postmarketing reports and a US Food and Drug Administration analysis have documented uncommon persistent sexual and nonsexual side-effects in a subset of younger men who have taken finasteride 1 mg for androgenic alopecia. While the mechanisms of the sexual side-effects in humans is incompletely understood, one study found lower cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, progesterone, dihydroprogesterone and allopregnanolone, and higher levels of testosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and pregnenolone. Another study found up-regulation of the androgen receptor in the human foreskin with a mean of 5 years after finasteride discontinuation.

Overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from

overview of steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from

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