Novel approaches to the treatment of lupus nephritis, such as using adenosine analogues, and combinations of existing medications, are being studied. Indeed, many of these approaches are on their way to being put to use in the near future. Some of these treatments, involving the blocking of various molecules that stimulate the cells of inflammation, are being studied at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. Finally, attempts are being made to completely reconstitute the immune system in patients with lupus by using bone marrow transplantation and stem cell transplantation. All of these approaches are in the very preliminary stages of development and are not yet accepted as useful. What is clear is that the treatment of lupus nephritis in decades to come will not be the same as it is today.