Hip fracture occurs mainly in older people, many of whom are frail. After surgery for their hip fracture, most patients suffer a loss of muscle mass and strength. Despite rehabilitation, most patients experience a long-term decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. This review considers the evidence for the use of anabolic steroids aimed at improving outcomes after hip fracture in older people.