Without the benefit of decades of study on the side effects of growth hormone upon the organs of bodybuilders , this issue will remain undecided for some years. Perhaps the lack of clinical data will be supplemented by the survival rates of today’s top bodybuilders as they retire and return to normal sizes, attempting to live normal lives. If they live to ripe old ages, then we’ll know the heart tissue growth wasn’t a major concern. If a large group of them pass away in their 40 s and 50 s from heart issues , the need for immediate additional study will become abundantly clear. The proof is in the pudding, and only time will tell us the long-term effects of AAS upon the cardiac function.
Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes.