Nov 14, 2017, 08:00 ET
Millions of people across the world suffer from kidney disease. Of those millions, several thousand will eventually or do need kidney transplants.  Out of those millions in the world, 16,500 in the United States needed a kidney transplant in 2008.  Of those 16,500 people, 5,000 died while waiting for a transplant.  Currently, there is a shortage of donors, and in 2007 there were only 64,606 kidney transplants in the world.  This shortage of donors is causing countries to place monetary value on kidneys. Countries such as Iran and Singapore are eliminating their lists by paying their citizens to donate. Also, the black market accounts for 5-10 percent of transplants that occur worldwide.  The act of buying an organ through the black market is illegal in the United States.  To be put on the waiting list for a kidney transplant, patients must first be referred by a physician, then they must choose and contact a donor hospital. Once they choose a donor hospital, patients must then receive an evaluation to make sure they are sustainable to receive a transplant. In order to be a match for a kidney transplant, patients must match blood type and human leukocyte antigen factors with their donors. They must also have no reactions to the antibodies from the donor’s kidneys.  
The main imaging tests performed in order to identify renal cell carcinoma are pelvic and abdominal CT scans, ultrasound tests of the kidneys (ultrasonography), MRI scans, intravenous pyelogram (IVP) or renal angiography.  Among these main diagnostic tests, other radiologic tests such as excretory urography , positron-emission tomography (PET) scanning, ultrasonography , arteriography , venography , and bone scanning can also be used to aid in the evaluation of staging renal masses and to differentiate non-malignant tumours from malignant tumours.